feed info

120,799 articles from ScienceDaily

Structures known as 'time crystals' -- which repeat in time as conventional crystals repeat in space -- have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. The concept has emerged from the context of quantum many-body systems, but physicists have now developed a versatile framework that clarifies connections to classical works dating back nearly two centuries, thus providing a unifying platform to explore seemingly dissimilar phenomena.

To best serve the clinical needs of individuals with MS, neuropsychological testing needs to be viewed in larger context comprising non-cognitive variables, such as motor ability and demographic values, fatigue and depression, and disease activity and level of disability, as well as person-specific factors such as personality and coping styles.

About 1 in 3 diabetic patients develops diabetic retinopathy (DR), which can impair vision and lead to blindness. A new study provides clear evidence that high glucose increases the levels of enzymatic precursor -- lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) -- that promotes cell death, which was verified in an animal model of diabetes. These findings may help develop novel DR treatments by targeting LOX-PP or its metabolites.

The E75 protein is a key regulator of some biological rhythms through interactions with nitric oxide. Suppression of E75 results in longer molt cycles and reduced numbers of offspring in the water flea, Daphnia magna. The work also raises questions about the ability of nitric oxide from environmental sources to disrupt biological rhythms that are critical to population sustainability.

Studying the complex layers of immunity in maize, a staple for diets around the world, scientists have identified key genes that enable surprisingly diverse antibiotic cocktails that can be produced as defensive blends against numerous disease agents. Biologists describe how they combined an array of scientific approaches to clearly define 6 genes that encode enzymes responsible for the production of key maize antibiotics known to control disease resistance.

New research has identified characteristics and gender-specific behaviors in kids that could lead them to become juvenile hackers. The researchers assessed responses from 50,000 teens from around the world to determine predictors of hacking and are the first to dig into gendered differences from a global data set.

The complexity of molecular structures in the cell is amazing. Having achieved great success in elucidating these structures in recent years, biologists are now taking on the next challenge: to find out more about how they are constructed. A new research project now provides insight into a very unusual construction process in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

Proteins are essential for every living cell and responsible for many fundamental processes. They are required as biocatalysts in metabolism and for signalling inside and between cells. Many diseases are due to failures in this communication, and the origins of signalling in proteins have been a source of scientific debate. A team has observed the mobile protons that do this job in every living cell.

A protective protein that detects newly-made incomplete protein chains in higher cells is found to have a relative in bacteria. There, the protein also plays a central role in quality control which ensures that defective proteins are degraded. The functional mechanism of these Rqc2 proteins must therefore have already existed several billion years ago in the so-called last universal common ancestor. Scientists have experimentally investigated the bacterial Rqc2 relative's function.

Many people are familiar with the existence of Neanderthals, the humanoid species that was a precursor to modern humans, but far less is known Denisovans, a similar group that were contemporaries to the Neanderthals and who died out approximately 50,000 years ago. Researchers have now made a reconstruction of a Denisovan girl based on patterns of methylation (chemical changes) in their ancient DNA.

A research team has examined the interplay between genetics, cardiovascular disease and educational attainment in a major population study. Genetic variants which had been linked to educational attainment in other studies were observed in the subjects. The researchers found that these variants also had implications for a more health-conscious lifestyle and thus a lower risk of cardiovascular disease - in some cases regardless of the level of education.