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- 19/9/19 19:40
Carbon allotropes built from rings of two-coordinate atoms, known as cyclo[n]carbons, have fascinated chemists for many years, but until now they could not be isolated or structurally characterized because of their high reactivity. We generated cyclocarbon (C18) using atom manipulation on bilayer NaCl on Cu(111) at 5 kelvin by eliminating carbon monoxide from a cyclocarbon oxide molecule, C24O6. Characterization of cyclocarbon by high-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed a polyynic structure with defined positions of alternating triple and single bonds. The high reactivity of cyclocarbon and cyclocarbon oxides allows covalent coupling between molecules to be induced by atom manipulation, opening an avenue for the synthesis of other carbon allotropes and carbon-rich materials from the coalescence of cyclocarbon molecules.
Botsyun et al. (Research Articles, 1 March 2019, eaaq1436) have suggested that the Tibetan Plateau was low (substantially less than 3000 meters) during the Eocene, based on a comparison of oxygen isotope proxy data with isotope-enabled climate model simulations. However, we contend that their conclusions are flawed as the result of a number of failings of both the modeling and the data comparison.
We report a robust, versatile approach called CRISPR live-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization (LiveFISH) using fluorescent oligonucleotides for genome tracking in a broad range of cell types, including primary cells. An intrinsic stability switch of CRISPR guide RNAs enables LiveFISH to accurately detect chromosomal disorders such as Patau syndrome in prenatal amniotic fluid cells and track multiple loci in human T lymphocytes. In addition, LiveFISH tracks the real-time movement of DNA double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR-Cas9–mediated editing and consequent chromosome translocations. Finally, by combining Cas9 and Cas13 systems, LiveFISH allows for simultaneous visualization of genomic DNA and RNA transcripts in living cells. The LiveFISH approach enables real-time live imaging of DNA and RNA during genome editing, transcription, and rearrangements in single cells.
Topological matter is known to exhibit unconventional surface states and anomalous transport owing to unusual bulk electronic topology. In this study, we use photoemission spectroscopy and quantum transport to elucidate the topology of the room temperature magnet Co2MnGa. We observe sharp bulk Weyl fermion line dispersions indicative of nontrivial topological invariants present in the magnetic phase. On the surface of the magnet, we observe electronic wave functions that take the form of drumheads, enabling us to directly visualize the crucial components of the bulk-boundary topological correspondence. By considering the Berry curvature field associated with the observed topological Weyl fermion lines, we quantitatively account for the giant anomalous Hall response observed in this magnet. Our experimental results suggest a rich interplay of strongly interacting electrons and topology in quantum matter.
Flooding due to extreme weather threatens crops and ecosystems. To understand variation in gene regulatory networks activated by submergence, we conducted a high-resolution analysis of chromatin accessibility and gene expression at three scales of transcript control in four angiosperms, ranging from a dryland-adapted wild species to a wetland crop. The data define a cohort of conserved submergence-activated genes with signatures of overlapping cis regulation by four transcription factor families. Syntenic genes are more highly expressed than nonsyntenic genes, yet both can have the cis motifs and chromatin accessibility associated with submergence up-regulation. Whereas the flexible circuitry spans the eudicot-monocot divide, the frequency of specific cis motifs, extent of chromatin accessibility, and degree of submergence activation are more prevalent in the wetland crop and may have adaptive importance.
Bulk–surface correspondence in Weyl semimetals ensures the formation of topological "Fermi arc" surface bands whose existence is guaranteed by bulk Weyl nodes. By investigating three distinct surface terminations of the ferromagnetic semimetal Co3Sn2S2, we verify spectroscopically its classification as a time-reversal symmetry-broken Weyl semimetal. We show that the distinct surface potentials imposed by three different terminations modify the Fermi-arc contour and Weyl node connectivity. On the tin (Sn) surface, we identify intra–Brillouin zone Weyl node connectivity of Fermi arcs, whereas on cobalt (Co) termination, the connectivity is across adjacent Brillouin zones. On the sulfur (S) surface, Fermi arcs overlap with nontopological bulk and surface states. We thus resolve both topologically protected and nonprotected electronic properties of a Weyl semimetal.
Opioids target the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) to produce unrivaled pain management, but their addictive properties can lead to severe abuse. We developed a whole-animal behavioral platform for unbiased discovery of genes influencing opioid responsiveness. Using forward genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a conserved orphan receptor, GPR139, with anti-opioid activity. GPR139 is coexpressed with MOR in opioid-sensitive brain circuits, binds to MOR, and inhibits signaling to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins). Deletion of GPR139 in mice enhanced opioid-induced inhibition of neuronal firing to modulate morphine-induced analgesia, reward, and withdrawal. Thus, GPR139 could be a useful target for increasing opioid safety. These results also demonstrate the potential of C. elegans as a scalable platform for genetic discovery of G protein–coupled receptor signaling principles.
The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Antimicrobial consumption in animals is threefold that of humans and has enabled large-scale animal protein production. The consequences for the development of antimicrobial resistance in animals have received comparatively less attention than in humans. We analyzed 901 point prevalence surveys of pathogens in developing countries to map resistance in animals. China and India represented the largest hotspots of resistance, with new hotspots emerging in Brazil and Kenya. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobials showing resistance above 50% increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs. Escalating resistance in animals is anticipated to have important consequences for animal health and, eventually, for human health.