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Using an advanced three-dimensional mapping technique medical researchers analyzed magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 25 others with mild Alzheimer's disease. The research team found that patients with mild Alzheimer's had 10 to 20 percent more atrophy in most cortical areas than did MCI patients.

For the first time, a new screening method shows promise for identifying new human tumor viruses, as well as determining which cancers are caused by infection and which are not. Statistics now show that infection contributes to over 20% of human cancers worldwide. Presently, the list of confirmed carcinogenic infectious agents is short, however studies suggest that new infectious agents yet to be identified contribute to a wide range of diseases, including cancers.

Colorectal cancer is currently the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. Recurrence and/or metastasis occurs in 30 to 50 percent of patients after surgery. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of postoperative recurrence and metastasis is crucial for prescribing an optimal, individualized treatment plan. Research performed in China by Dr. Chen has found that combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography can provide complete information about the location, nature and extent of lesions.

By studying antibodies in the blood of Amazonian natives living in malaria endemic areas, researchers have discovered promising new targets for a malarial vaccine. In Brazil, Plasmodium vivax was responsible for 80% of the 600,000 cases of malaria reported in 2005 and malaria-related morbidity across the Amazon Basin. Emerging resistance to the frontline antimalarial drug, chloroquine, is of major concern as the mutation of target antigens complicates the development of new preventative therapies.

A small but revealing study suggests that a widely used tool to measure physical, emotional and psychological functioning and well-being in children may fail to accurately gauge these quality-of-life indicators in the children with some of the most severe bladder conditions, such as spina bifida and bladder exstrophies. Another possibility is that children with such conditions manage to adapt and have a relatively normal quality of life, researchers say.

Scientists from developing countries are vitally important in the fight against HIV and they must be given the proper resources to conduct their work, according to a new commentary published today in the journal Nature Immunology. Researchers from Imperial College London, who are evaluating multiple candidate vaccines designed to prevent HIV, argue that Western governments and funding agencies must commit to sharing technology and expertise with those in the developing world on a long-term basis.

An open-access commentary in the December 2007 issue of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology examines a recently launched a global initiative by the World Health Organization to combat healthcare-associated infection by improving hand hygiene in health care. The commentary is part of the Global Theme Issue on Poverty and Human Development.

Questions about human migration from Asia to the Americas have perplexed anthropologists for decades, but as scenarios about the peopling of the New World come and go, the big questions have remained. Do the ancestors of Native Americans derive from only a small number of "founders" who trekked to the Americas via the Bering land bridge? How did their migration to the New World proceed? What, if anything, did the climate have to do with their migration? And what took them so long?

In a rapid follow-up to their achievement as the first to demonstrate how an electron's spin can be electrically injected, controlled and detected in silicon, electrical engineers from the University of Delaware and Cambridge NanoTech now show that this quantum property can be transported a marathon distance in the world of microelectronics -- through an entire silicon wafer. The finding confirms that silicon -- the workhorse material of present-day electronics -- now can be harnessed up for new-age spintronics applications.

Soils may dictate the array of fall colors as much as the trees rooted in them, according to a forest survey out of North Carolina. By taking careful stock and laboratory analyses of the autumn foliage of sweetgum and red maple trees along transects from floodplains to ridge-tops in a nature preserve in Charlotte, N.C., scientists found that in places where the soil was relatively low in nitrogen and other essential elements, trees produced more red pigments known as anthocyanins.