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146,687 articles from EurekAlert

Galaxies lead a graceful existence on cosmic timescales. Over millions of years, they can engage in elaborate dances that produce some of Nature's most exquisite and striking grand designs. Few are as captivating as the galactic duo known as NGC 5394/5, sometimes nicknamed the Heron Galaxy.

High blood pressure in the lungs, known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a potentially fatal disease caused by obstruction of blood flow in the lungs. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, sheds light on the pathology underlying PAH and shows that dofetilide, an FDA-approved KV11.1 channel blocker for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (brand name: Tikosyn), may be used for treatment of PAH.

A research team at Dartmouth's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has previously shown that fatty particles from the bloodstream may boost the growth of breast cancer cells. They now show that through an unexpected mechanism not previously described in cancer cells, the fat particles bind to the breast cancer cell surface and are then taken into the cell, providing a large supply of fuel that drives proliferation of the cancer cells.

Researchers at the USC have been enlisting the help of artificial intelligence to help mitigate the risk of suicide. Phebe Vayanos, an associate director at USC's Center for Artificial Intelligence in Society (CAIS), and her team have been working over the last couple of years to design an algorithm capable of identifying who in a given real-life social group would be the best persons to be trained as 'gatekeepers' capable of identifying warning signs of suicide and how to respond.

Influenza can be especially dangerous for children, who are at greater risk for serious complications from the illness, including hospitalization and even death. Yet child care centers in the US rarely require children or the adults who care for them to be vaccinated against flu, according to a new study published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

A new study led by a University of Maryland biologist discovered two unexpected drivers for migration timing that dispute long-held assumptions and provide insight into potential future effects of climate change on caribou. First, the start of migration is synchronized across North America and tied to large-scale, ocean-driven climate cycles. Second, warm, windless summers that favored insect pests lead to poorer maternal health and delayed arrivals at the calving grounds the following spring.

Four unsolved mysteries around schizophrenia have long plagued the medical community, but a new hypothesis identifying a common link between them and an almost forgotten epidemic of a disease called pellagra could have profound implications for our understanding of psychosis in poorer nations. The new hypothesis has implications for how a subgroup of people with active psychosis could be potentially screened, treated, and cured.

Scientists from Duke University have developed a model that can predict the amount of mercury being released into a local ecosystem from deforestation. The research could point toward ways to mitigate the worst effects of mercury poisoning in regions already experiencing elevated mercury levels caused by small-scale gold mining practices, such as those in the Peruvian Amazon.

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology have demonstrated an ultrafast all-optical switching operation with the lowest energy consumption ever reported for all-optical switching at less than one picosecond (one trillionth of a second). The current achievement combines an ultrasmall optical waveguide with a height and width of a few dozen nanometers, called a plasmonic waveguide1, with graphene2, a material that shows great promise for nonlinear optics.

The recent reports from the IPCC concluded that new land-use options to enhance the terrestrial carbon sink are needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate. As a result of the integrated analysis, the research team led by Masayuki Kondo, an Assistant Professor at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, succeeded in reducing the mismatches between net CO2 fluxes from multiple data sources. Their results was published on Dec. 12 in Global Change Biology.

Despite being a protected high conservation value habitat, the Atlantic coastal dunes are severely impacted by invasive species. In the Belgian coastal dunes, Oregon grape is one of the worst invaders, so Belgian scientists conducted an experiment to provide recommendations for all affected countries. By publishing their discovery in the open-access journal NeoBiota, the research team aims to boost international collaboration on the development of methods for invasive species control in conservation habitats.

Following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011, the Japanese authorities decided to carry out major decontamination works in the affected area, which covers more than 9,000 km2. On Dec. 12, 2019, with most of this work having been completed, the scientific journal SOIL of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) is publishing a synthesis of approximately 60 scientific publications that provide an overview of the decontamination strategies used and their effectiveness.

As sea levels rise and adverse weather events become more common, vulnerable coastal communities are at increasing risk of devastation from storm surges and tsunamis. The death toll from tsunamis was 260,000 during the past century. A research team led by the University of Göttingen has now compared the effects of man-made and ecosystem protection to propose an approach including mangroves and coral reefs in coastal protection. The results appeared in Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Scientists have used the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt both latent reservoirs of the herpes simplex virus and actively replicating virus in human fibroblast cells. Experiments pinpoint weak spot that can make the virus susceptible to gene editing.

Is it safe to give ivermectin to pregnant women? To answer this question, researchers from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by 'la Caixa,' conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported cases of accidental exposure to the drug among pregnant women. The conclusion of the analysis, published in The Lancet Global Health, is that there is not sufficient evidence to support the safety of ivermectin administration during pregnancy.