10-year results of NRG Oncology/NSABP B-42 trial
146,687 articles from EurekAlert
A galactic dance
In the updated results from NRG Oncology/NSABP B-42 trial through 10 years of observation, extending letrozole therapy for additional five years after five years of adjuvant endocrine therapy resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.
Achieving optimal collaboration when goals conflict
Galaxies lead a graceful existence on cosmic timescales. Over millions of years, they can engage in elaborate dances that produce some of Nature's most exquisite and striking grand designs. Few are as captivating as the galactic duo known as NGC 5394/5, sometimes nicknamed the Heron Galaxy.
Antiarrhythmic drug identified as potential treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension
New research suggests that, when two people must work together on a physical task despite conflicting goals, the amount of information available about each other's actions influences how quickly and optimally they learn to collaborate. Vinil Chackochan and Vittorio Sanguineti of the University of Genoa, Italy, present these findings in PLOS Computational Biology.
Baby boys born small for gestational age have increased risk of infertility in adulthood
High blood pressure in the lungs, known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a potentially fatal disease caused by obstruction of blood flow in the lungs. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, sheds light on the pathology underlying PAH and shows that dofetilide, an FDA-approved KV11.1 channel blocker for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (brand name: Tikosyn), may be used for treatment of PAH.
Baby's first breath: A new method for helping preemies to breathe
Baby boys who are born small for their gestational age are at increased risk of having fertility problems in adulthood, according to research published in Human Reproduction.
Beyond 'shovelomics': Growing cassava in the air helps study the plant's mysterious roots
Two new studies in Frontiers in Pediatrics demonstrate that giving premature babies 100% oxygen via face-mask immediately after birth can jump start independent breathing and minimize the amount of ventilation assistance these babies will need.
Black/white breast cancer subtype incidence in men differs from trends in women
Scientists at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture grew cassava in the air -- using a technique called aeroponics -- to better understand the root growth of one of the world's hardiest staple crops.
Breast cancer cells swallow a 'free lunch' of dietary fat particles from the bloodstream
Incidence rates for hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancers are considerably higher in black men than white men, in stark contrast to lower incidence rates of those cancer subtypes in black versus white women.
Breast cancer patients to be evaluated for genetic testing
A research team at Dartmouth's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has previously shown that fatty particles from the bloodstream may boost the growth of breast cancer cells. They now show that through an unexpected mechanism not previously described in cancer cells, the fat particles bind to the breast cancer cell surface and are then taken into the cell, providing a large supply of fuel that drives proliferation of the cancer cells.
Can artificial intelligence help prevent suicides?
The guidance from the ACMG differs from a consensus guideline issued in February by the American Society of Breast Surgeons, which recommended genetic testing for all newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer. The ACMG recommends evaluations before genetic testing.
Canadian tundra formerly covered in rich forest: Ancient plant fossil record shows
Researchers at the USC have been enlisting the help of artificial intelligence to help mitigate the risk of suicide. Phebe Vayanos, an associate director at USC's Center for Artificial Intelligence in Society (CAIS), and her team have been working over the last couple of years to design an algorithm capable of identifying who in a given real-life social group would be the best persons to be trained as 'gatekeepers' capable of identifying warning signs of suicide and how to respond.
Chemists' calculations may advance cancer prediction
Canada's northernmost islands, Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in Nunavut, were home to a vibrant, temperate forest 56 million years ago, according to fossil research just published by University of Saskatchewan (USask) scientists.
Child care centers rarely require flu vaccination for children or their caregivers
A computational study by Rice University chemists showed the dynamics of tumor formation don't necessarily correlate with clinical data on lifetime cancer risks. It suggests biomarkers may someday be able to help predict when mutations in cells will turn cancer-prone cells into full-blown cancer.
Chinese team makes nanoscopy breakthrough
Influenza can be especially dangerous for children, who are at greater risk for serious complications from the illness, including hospitalization and even death. Yet child care centers in the US rarely require children or the adults who care for them to be vaccinated against flu, according to a new study published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.
Climate cycles and insect pests drive migration timing of reindeer's North American cousin
A Chinese research team has developed an advanced imaging technique to achieve super-resolution microscopy at unprecedented speeds and with many fewer images. The new method should make it possible to capture processes in living cells at speeds not previously possible.
Combining science and design to measure our exposure to light
A new study led by a University of Maryland biologist discovered two unexpected drivers for migration timing that dispute long-held assumptions and provide insight into potential future effects of climate change on caribou. First, the start of migration is synchronized across North America and tied to large-scale, ocean-driven climate cycles. Second, warm, windless summers that favored insect pests lead to poorer maternal health and delayed arrivals at the calving grounds the following spring.
Comprehensive background check policies effective in Oregon but not in Washington
Daylight plays an essential role in sleep, alertness and hormone regulation. EPFL has joined forces with Geneva School of Art and Design (HEAD - GenÃ¨ve) to develop a wearable sensor that measures how much light an individual is exposed to along with the spectral resolution of that light.
Computerised CBT could reduce waiting lists for treatment of depression in adolescents
Updated comprehensive background check policies were associated with an 18% increase in pre-firearm-sale checks in Oregon and a 4% increase in Washington state.
Could some people with schizophrenia in poorer nations simply have a vitamin deficiency?
Using a computerised version of cognitive-behavioural therapy to treat depression in children and young adults has the potential to improve access to psychological therapies and reduce waiting lists, a new study suggests.
Daylight saving time does not misalign human cycles
Four unsolved mysteries around schizophrenia have long plagued the medical community, but a new hypothesis identifying a common link between them and an almost forgotten epidemic of a disease called pellagra could have profound implications for our understanding of psychosis in poorer nations. The new hypothesis has implications for how a subgroup of people with active psychosis could be potentially screened, treated, and cured.
Deadly 'superbugs' destroyed by molecular drills
A study from Universidad de Sevilla describes the role of latitude and urges the European Commission to rethink its policy on summertime arrangements
Deforestation, erosion exacerbate mercury spikes near Peruvian gold mining
Motorized molecules activated by light target and drill through highly antibiotic resistant bacteria and kill them within minutes. The molecules can open bacteria to attack by drugs they previously resisted. The strategy could be applied to bacterial infections or diseases on the skin, in the lungs or in the gastrointestinal tract.
Demonstration of ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical switching with graphene and plasmonic waveguides
Scientists from Duke University have developed a model that can predict the amount of mercury being released into a local ecosystem from deforestation. The research could point toward ways to mitigate the worst effects of mercury poisoning in regions already experiencing elevated mercury levels caused by small-scale gold mining practices, such as those in the Peruvian Amazon.
Depression, anxiety may hinder healing in young patients with hip pain
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology have demonstrated an ultrafast all-optical switching operation with the lowest energy consumption ever reported for all-optical switching at less than one picosecond (one trillionth of a second). The current achievement combines an ultrasmall optical waveguide with a height and width of a few dozen nanometers, called a plasmonic waveguide1, with graphene2, a material that shows great promise for nonlinear optics.
Estimates of ecosystem carbon mitigation improved towards the goal of the Paris agreement
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that depression and anxiety in patients with hip pain are associated with worse outcomes following hip surgery, including more postsurgical pain, slower recovery and inadequate return to activity.
Experiment suggests the best ways to tackle invasive Oregon grape in Belgian coastal dunes
The recent reports from the IPCC concluded that new land-use options to enhance the terrestrial carbon sink are needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate. As a result of the integrated analysis, the research team led by Masayuki Kondo, an Assistant Professor at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, succeeded in reducing the mismatches between net CO2 fluxes from multiple data sources. Their results was published on Dec. 12 in Global Change Biology.
Experts review evidence yoga is good for the brain
Despite being a protected high conservation value habitat, the Atlantic coastal dunes are severely impacted by invasive species. In the Belgian coastal dunes, Oregon grape is one of the worst invaders, so Belgian scientists conducted an experiment to provide recommendations for all affected countries. By publishing their discovery in the open-access journal NeoBiota, the research team aims to boost international collaboration on the development of methods for invasive species control in conservation habitats.
First-ever quality measures aim to reduce diabetes complications
Scientists have known for decades that aerobic exercise strengthens the brain and contributes to the growth of new neurons, but few studies have examined how yoga affects the brain. A review of the science finds evidence that yoga enhances many of the same brain structures and functions that benefit from aerobic exercise.
For the first time: Mapping the winds of mars' upper atmosphere with MAVEN
The Endocrine Society and Avalere Health introduced the first-ever quality measures to help healthcare providers assess how well they identify and care for older adults at greater risk of hypoglycemia -- low blood sugar that can be a dangerous complication of diabetes treatment.
Fukushima: Lessons learned from an extraordinary case of soil decontamination
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft has allowed researchers to map the winds that blow high above the red planet's surface, reports a new study, which measures the global circulation of Mars' upper atmosphere for the first time.
Fundamental discoveries for future nanotools: Chemists distinguish multiple weak forces
Following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011, the Japanese authorities decided to carry out major decontamination works in the affected area, which covers more than 9,000 km2. On Dec. 12, 2019, with most of this work having been completed, the scientific journal SOIL of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) is publishing a synthesis of approximately 60 scientific publications that provide an overview of the decontamination strategies used and their effectiveness.
Ghost imaging speeds up super-resolution microscopy
The process of building a tiny cube has revealed some of the fundamental mysteries of how molecules bind together in natural environments. Researchers hope to apply this knowledge to future projects designing complex structures that can mimic life.
Harnessing nature's defences against tsunamis
Researchers have used advanced imaging approaches to achieve super-resolution microscopy at unprecedented speeds. The new method should make it possible to capture the details of processes occurring in living cells at speeds not previously possible.
Here's what police know about digital evidence
As sea levels rise and adverse weather events become more common, vulnerable coastal communities are at increasing risk of devastation from storm surges and tsunamis. The death toll from tsunamis was 260,000 during the past century. A research team led by the University of GÃ¶ttingen has now compared the effects of man-made and ecosystem protection to propose an approach including mangroves and coral reefs in coastal protection. The results appeared in Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
Herpes's Achilles heel
In today's criminal justice system, a Play Station and iPhone are just as important pieces of evidence as eyewitness accounts. Thomas Holt, professor of criminal justice at Michigan State University, is among the first researchers to capture how well police officers recognize digital evidence, as well as what to do with it.
Houston Methodist developed AI app to predict risk and prevent severe patient falls
Scientists have used the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt both latent reservoirs of the herpes simplex virus and actively replicating virus in human fibroblast cells. Experiments pinpoint weak spot that can make the virus susceptible to gene editing.
How can you help your organization's expatriates succeed?
New research will be live in npj Digital Medicine on Dec. 12, 2019, that will feature a machine learning app aimed at preventing patients from severe fall-related injuries and deaths.
How humans learnt to dance; from the Chimpanzee Conga
SIOP publishes white paper that explores how to promote your overseas workers' productivity and well-being. This white paper provides an overview of the experiences and challenges encountered by people who live and work outside of their home societies and introduces some of the solutions currently available to meet these challenges based on I-O psychology research.
Hubble watches interstellar comet Borisov speed past the sun
Two chimpanzees housed in a zoo in the US have sparked the question about how human dance evolved after being observed performing a duo dance-like behaviour, similar to a human conga-line.
Hydration may affect cognitive function in some older adults
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has once again captured comet 2I/Borisov streaking through our solar system on its way back into interstellar space. At a breathtaking speed of over 175 000 kilometres per hour, Borisov is one of the fastest comets ever seen. It is only the second interstellar object known to have passed through the Solar System.
IBIS-II study finds anastrozole reduces breast cancer rates for high risk postmenopausal women
Among women, lower hydration levels were associated with lower scores on a task designed to measure motor speed, sustained attention, and working memory. They did not find the same result for men.
Interstellar comet 2I -- Borisov swings past sun
The Queen Mary University of London professor leading an international breast cancer study says anastrozole -- rather than tamoxifen -- should be the preventive drug-of-choice for post-menopausal women at increased risk of developing the disease.
Is ivermectin safe during pregnancy?
Comet 2I/Borisov is a mysterious visitor from the depths of space -- the first identified comet to arrive here from another star. Hubble images capture the comet streaking though our solar system and on its way back to interstellar space. It's only the second interstellar object known to have passed through the solar system.
Knee-jerk vaping bans will fail public health, experts argue
Is it safe to give ivermectin to pregnant women? To answer this question, researchers from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by 'la Caixa,' conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported cases of accidental exposure to the drug among pregnant women. The conclusion of the analysis, published in The Lancet Global Health, is that there is not sufficient evidence to support the safety of ivermectin administration during pregnancy.
Bans and other policies restricting e-cigarette sales could do more public harm than good, according to a group of public-health, tobacco-policy and ethics experts.