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146,215 articles from EurekAlert

New research reveals how a week in the dark rewires brain cell networks and changes hearing sensitivity in adult mice long after the optimal window for auditory learning has passed. With further study, cross-modal learning -- the manipulation of one sense to induce change in another sense -- could be used to help people with disabilities. For example, temporary sight deprivation might be used to help deaf and hearing-impaired people adapt to cochlear implants and hearing aids.

Developed by researchers at UCLA, diffractive optical networks provide a low power, low latency and highly-scalable machine learning platform that can find numerous applications in robotics, autonomous vehicles, defense industry, among many others. In addition to providing statistical inference and generalization to classes of data, diffractive neural networks have also been used to design deterministic optical systems such as a thin imaging system.

Most people spend the majority of their time at home, yet little is known about the air they breathe inside their houses. That's why some atmospheric chemists are turning their attention toward indoor air, using tools developed for monitoring pollutants outside. By cataloguing compounds in indoor air, scientists could someday link them with health effects, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society.

Experts at a prestigious medical conference hosted by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and funded by the National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) National Institute on Aging (NIA) hope their work -- reported this week in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS) -- can help yield hard evidence to address the range of 'soft tissue' and bone disorders that contribute to falls, fractures, and muscle loss as we age.

Parkinson's and multisystem atrophy (MSA) - both of them neurodegenerative diseases - are associated with the accumulation of alpha-synuclein proteins in the brain. Researchers at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (MPI-BPC) have investigated the molecular makeup of these protein deposits finding structural diversity. The results, published in the scientific journal "Nature Communications", suggest that Parkinson's might be related to diverse types of protein aggregates.

Unlike wine, which generally improves with time, beer does not age well. Usually within a year of bottling, the beverage starts to develop an unpleasant papery or cardboard-like flavor that drinkers describe as 'stale.' Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have engineered lager yeast to make more molecules that protect beer against staling, resulting in improved flavor stability.

A new study suggests there is a two-way relationship between bullying perpetration and mental health problems among U.S. youth. Researchers report that bullying perpetration increased the risk of developing internalizing problems, and having internalizing problems increased the probability of bullying others. While previous research has focused on the causes and consequences of bullying victimization, this is the first study to comprehensively explore the time sequence between bullying perpetration and mental health problems.

About one-third of patients newly diagnosed with the most common form of lung cancer have moderate to severe symptoms of depression, a new study suggests. For many of these patients -- particularly those with severe symptoms -- depression occurs in a toxic blend of high levels of anxiety, traumatic stress, impaired day-to-day functioning and significant pain and other physical symptoms, findings showed.

A new University of Barcelona study reveals the first empirical genetic evidence of human self-domestication, a hypothesis that humans have evolved friendlier and more cooperative by selecting their companions depending on their behaviour. Researchers identified a genetic network involved in the unique evolutionary trajectory of the modern human face and prosociality, which is absent in the Neanderthals genome. The experiment is based on Williams Syndrome cells, a rare disease.