281 articles from TUESDAY 3.12.2019

The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers. An engineering team considers the current understanding of health impacts and possible solutions, which indicate a 500-meter (one third of a mile) buffer around schools and hospitals may help reduce risk for vulnerable populations.

A team led by Professor Sylvain Martel at the Polytechnique Montréal Nanorobotics Laboratory has developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to guide medical instruments through deeper and more complex vascular structures. The approach has been successfully demonstrated in-vivo, and is the subject of an article just published in Science Robotics.

Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers at the University of Maryland (UMD), in College Park, Maryland, have captured a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach of comet 46P/Wirtanen in late 2018. This is the most complete and detailed observation to date of the formation and dissipation of a naturally-occurring comet outburst. The team members reported their results in the November 22 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection and processing of antigens by MHC-I proteins.

While some diets load up on protein and other diets dictate protein sources, it can be hard to know what to consume while managing weight or during weight loss. A new study by nutrition scientists shows that eating more protein daily than what is recommended may benefit only a few - those who are actively losing weight by cutting calories or those strength training to build more lean muscle mass.

Researchers have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplication is specific to the environmental pressure and the effects of age. Understanding the mechanism of gene duplication and DNA circle formation has relevance to the biology of ageing and the development of drug resistance in cancers cells.

Researchers have developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. Their solution is a robotic platform that uses the fringe field generated by the superconducting magnet of a clinical MRI scanner to guide medical instruments through deeper and more complex vascular structures. The approach has been successfully demonstrated in-vivo.

Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling. Exactly how these proteins carry out their crucial functions has not been well understood. Now, however, researchers have worked out the details of key molecular interactions involved in the selection and processing of antigens by MHC-I proteins.

Genome amplification, whereby organisms bump up the number of copies of beneficial genes in response to environmental stresses, is implicated in diseases such as cancer and also in ageing. Researchers in the Babraham Institute's Epigenetics research programme have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplication is specific to the environmental pressure and the effects of age. Their research is published today in the journal PLOS Biology.

Computers can learn to find solar flares and other events in vast streams of solar images and help NOAA forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study. The machine-learning technique, developed by scientists at CIRES and NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), searches massive amounts of satellite data to pick out features significant for space weather. Changing conditions on the Sun and in space can affect various technologies on Earth, blocking radio communications, damaging power grids, and diminishing navigation system accuracy.