174 articles from MONDAY 2.12.2019

Nancy Pelosi tells UN conference in Madrid that commitment is ‘iron-clad’

The US will take action on greenhouse gases and engage with other countries on the climate emergency despite Donald Trump’s rejection of international cooperation, a delegation from the US Congress has told the UN climate conference in Madrid.

Nancy Pelosi, the speaker of the House, struck a defiant stance on Monday, declaring: “Congress’s commitment to action on the climate crisis is iron-clad. This is a matter of public health, of clean air, of clean water, of our children, of the survival of our economies, of the prosperity of the world, of national security, justice and equality. We now must deliver deeper cuts in emissions.”

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A study suggests a new approach, or, possibly two new approaches against prostate cancer bone metastases: While targeted therapies and anti-cancer immunotherapies have not been especially successful against primary prostate cancers, the study suggests that both these approaches may be effective against the bone metastases that grow from primary prostate cancers, and, in fact, the type of bone metastasis may dictate which targeted therapies and immunotherapies work best.

Young cancer survivors face unique medical and psychosocial challenges that can hinder their ability to move on mentally and socially, even years after their final treatment. Lingering feelings of isolation and loss can contribute to a lack of confidence and self-efficacy, or the sense that they will be able to handle whatever arises in the future. But new research suggests survivors who retell their story through photography can significantly increase their self-esteem and self-efficacy.

Peter Lock, a former probation officer, and psychotherapist Tricia Scott on jail conditions that can do more harm than good to prisoners

As a retired probation officer who was involved in the delivery of training programmes for the Criminal Justice Act 2003, I would suggest that the inadequacy of sentencing in Usman Khan’s case was rooted in the manner in which imprisonment for public protection (IPP) sentences were used following their introduction in 2005. They were intended for cases where the circumstances of an offence fell short of the threshold for a life term, but there was evidence of an ongoing serious risk to the public.

Unfortunately, IPPs were passed in numerous cases where they were inappropriate and were likely to do more harm than good. In particular, they were handed out to damaged young men who were not only in need of therapy and rehabilitation, but were ill-equipped to deal with the open-ended nature of the sentence. This was compounded by the fact that the prison system was unable to offer the structured path available to lifers so those on IPPs were often stuck in busy jails or bounced around the system due to their problematic behaviour.

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Small woodlands in farmland have more benefits for humans per area, compared to large forests according to a new study. The small woodlands, sometimes even smaller than a football field, can easily go unnoticed in agricultural landscapes. Yet, these small forest remnants can store more carbon in the topsoil layer, are more suitable for hunting activities and host fewer ticks than large forests.

A single volatile substance can be sufficient to induce a defense response in sweet potatoes to herbivores. Researchers have identified this substance and shown that the mechanism is not only limited to the attacked plant itself but also alerts unaffected neighboring plants to defend themselves against attackers. This response is specific and not observed in every sweet potato cultivar. The results of the study are of interest for breeding resistant sweet potato cultivars.

Researchers have invented a wireless communication receiver that can operate in the terahertz frequency band. By increasing the sensitivity 10,000-fold, they achieved the fastest Researchers invent a new receiver for terahertz-frequency radiation -- by implementing coherent detection, they achieve record transmission rates -- this work may lead to much faster wireless data speeds using less power.real-time error-free transmission rates ever recorded. This work may be crucial for next generation cell phone standards and novel remote sensors.

Researchers have characterized a protein, called VSP, that keeps sperm swimming in straight lines. Deletion of the protein caused sperm to swim in circles, significantly reducing fertilization rates. VSP also controlled the influx of calcium ions into the flagellum, which is necessary for propulsion of the sperm towards the egg. The researchers hope that their discovery will aid in the development of fertility treatments to enhance sperm motility.