108 articles from FRIDAY 4.10.2019

Over the last two decades, tremendous advances have been made in the field of quantum information science. Scientists are capitalizing on the strange nature of quantum mechanics to solve difficult problems in computing and communications, as well as in sensing and measuring delicate systems. One avenue of research in this field is optical quantum information processing, which uses photons—tiny particles of light that have unique quantum properties.

Shift work and jet lag disrupt not just sleep cycles, but feeding and digestive cycles as well. Such disruptions have been linked to risk of obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, and other conditions. Now, researchers have identified an immune cell that helps set the daily rhythms of the gut. The findings open the door to new treatments for digestive ailments targeting such cells.

Edible sensor helps TB patients take their meds: studyAn ingestible sensor that allows doctors to remotely monitor tuberculosis patients' intake of medication has the potential to save millions of lives and revolutionise treatment for the world's most deadly infectious disease, researchers said Friday. A randomised trial of 77 patients in California, published in the journal PLOS medicine, found that 93 percent of patients using the sensor were taking their daily treatment doses, compared with 63 percent who did not. Around 10 million people contract tuberculosis annually, and in 2017 1.6 million people died from the chronic lung disorder.

A researcher who is currently doing his post-doctoral training at Stanford University, has successfully invented a novel transfection method to deliver DNA into immune cells with minimal stress on these cells. This new technique is expected to boost DNA-based cancer immunotherapy by significantly improving the process of generating high-quality genetically modified immune cells.

In materials science and quantum physics, flat bands and correlated behaviors within the "magic angle" twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) has sparked significant interest, although many of its properties face intense debate. In a new report published in Science Advances, Emilio Codecido and colleagues in the departments of physics and materials science in the U.S. and Japan observed both superconductivity and a Mott-like insulator state in a tBLG device with a twist angle approximating 0.93 degrees. This angle was 15 percent smaller than the magic angle computed (∼ 1.1°) in previous studies. The study revealed the "magic" range of tBLG to be larger than previously expected. The work provided a wealth of new information to decipher the strong quantum phenomena within tBLG devices for applications in quantum physics.

Working with the ice core ReCap, drilled close to the coast in East Greenland, researchers wondered why the dust particles from the interglacial period -- the warmer period of time between the ice ages -- were several times bigger than the dust particles from the ice age. The research led to the invention of a method able to map the advancement of the glaciers in cold periods and the melting in warmer periods.

Antibiotics are still the most important weapon for combatting bacterial infections. But medical science is running out of ''ammunition'' because of more and more frequently occurring resistances. Research teams have now elucidated the structure of the proteolytic complex ClpX-ClpP. This is a key to development of innovative antibiotics which target the degradation process of defective proteins in bacteria.