101 articles from TUESDAY 1.10.2019

From a professional standpoint, Nathan Hoot, MD, Ph.D., understands the value of medical research that leads to new, groundbreaking drugs in the treatment of rare diseases. And as an emergency medicine physician, he's familiar with adjusting ventilators and managing patients' airways. But the magnitude of these matters also weigh on Hoot personally -- as the father of a child with a rare genetic disease.

A paradox of food insecurity in wealthy countries is its association with excess weight. Now, a study finds that young adults in the United States who are food insecure not only are slightly more likely to be obese, they are significantly more likely to suffer from disorders associated with high body mass index, as well as obstructive airway diseases like asthma.

A recent Chinese mission has revealed more about the South Pole Aitken basin

Most space rocks that hurtle towards Earth burn up in the atmosphere. The moon’s lack of atmosphere means it does not have the same protection, and consequently its surface is peppered with craters. The oldest and largest crater – a massive 2,000km across and 13km deep – sits at the far side of the moon. Known as the South Pole Aitken basin, this crater fascinates scientists because it may help reveal what’s inside the moon.

Data from Nasa’s Grail mission in 2011 mapped the moon’s gravitational field and showed that the South Pole Aitken basin exerted a strong pull. Scientists speculate that this might be due to a large chunk of nickel and iron embedded beneath the crater – perhaps the remnants of the asteroid that created it. Or it could be an anomalously dense region in the moon’s interior.

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Nuclear abnormalities such as nuclear blebs and micronuclei have devastating consequences for the genetic material and are associated with cancer or ageing. Scientists now revealed that the epigenetic enzyme MOF is crucial for the morphological integrity of the mammalian nucleus. Moreover, the study characterized the epigenetic landscape of nuclear abnormalities and discovered a formerly unknown epigenetic mechanism that seems to protect cells from additional damage.

Whether we're searching for Waldo or our keys in a room of clutter, we tap into a part of the frontal region of the brain when performing visual, goal-related tasks. Some of us do it well, whereas for others it's a bit challenging. One researcher set out to investigate why, and what specifically this part of the brain, called the pre-supplementary motor area, does during searching.

NASA lander captures marsquakes, other Martian soundsNASA's InSight lander on Mars has captured the low rumble of marsquakes and a symphony of other otherworldly sounds. InSight's seismometer has detected more than 100 events, but only 21 are considered strong marsquake candidates. The French seismometer is so sensitive it can hear the Martian wind as well as movements by the lander's robot arm and other mechanical "dinks and donks " as the team calls them.

Putting power and potential behind gender equity in health care isn't just common sense. It's critical to the future of health, safety, and independence for us all as we age, so says the American Geriatrics Society in a new position statement. The statement outlines strategic objectives that can help us achieve a simple truth: 'When women rise, we all rise.'

Relativity Space raises $140M to stay on track for 3D-printed rocket’s launchFour years after it was founded in Seattle, Relativity Space has landed its biggest infusion of capital to date — and says the $140 million investment will fully fund its drive to launch the world's first all-3D-printed rocket into orbit and enter commercial service in 2021. The company, now based in Los Angeles, was founded by two rocket engineers with connections to Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin space venture: CEO Tim Ellis, who worked on propulsion development and 3-D printing at Blue Origin's headquarters in Kent, Wash.; and chief technology officer Jordan Noone, who was a Blue Origin intern and went… Read More

On 22 December 2018, a flank of the Anak Krakatau plunged into the Sunda strait between the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java, triggering a tsunami that killed 430 people. An international research team has now shown that the volcano produced clear warning signals before its collapse. The researchers recommend to use their study to improve monitoring of volcanoes.

Chemists have fabricated for the first time plasmonic color-switchable films of silver nanoparticles. Until now, such color changing of nanoparticles was mainly achieved in liquids, limiting their potential for practical applications. The technology has a number of applications: product authentication, color displays, signage, sensors, and information encryption.

The new observation that strains of V. cholerae can be expelled into the environment after being ingested by protozoa, and that these bacteria are then primed for colonization and infection in humans, could help explain why cholera is so persistent in aquatic environments. The disease-causing bacteria are protected in the protozoan gut and ejected into the environment in membrane-bound expelled food vacuoles (EFVs).