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Researchers have used a novel and first-of-its-kind newborn mouse model to study the effect of high oxygen concentrations, or hyperoxia, on lung development of newborn mice that are germ-free -- meaning no microbes colonizing their lungs. Their goal is to learn how differences in the types of microbes that already colonize human lungs at birth -- including extremely premature infants -- can protect or make an infant more susceptible to life-threatening bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD.

A recent study demonstrates a new way to tune the properties of 2D materials simply by adjusting the twist angle between them. The researchers built devices consisting of monolayer graphene encapsulated between two crystals of boron nitride and, by adjusting the relative twist angle between the layers, they were able to create multiple moiré pattern--''the first time anyone has seen the full rotational dependence of coexisting moiré superlattices in one device.''

Researchers applied a new modeling approach for long-term planning of the U.S. power grid under future climate and water resource conditions. The new approach shows the grid may need an additional 5.3% to 12% of power-generating capacity to meet demand and reliability requirements. The changes would lower water use and carbon emissions, potentially helping mitigate future climate changes.

31.7% of tropical Africa's vascular plant species could be threatened with extinction, reveals an international study. Using a new approach based on the key elements of the assessment process used by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), for the first time researchers have been able to assess the potential conservation status of tropical flora on the scale of a continent.

Getting to the doctor's office for a check-up can be challenging for someone with a neurological disorder that impairs their movement, such as a stroke. But what if the patient could just take a video clip of their movements with a smart phone and forward the results to their doctor? Work by Dr. Hardeep Ryait and colleagues at CCBN-University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, publishing November 21 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, shows how this might one day be possible.

When pathogens invade cells, our body combats them using various methods. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have now been able to show how a cellular pump keeps such invading pathogens in check. As the researchers report in Science, this pump causes a magnesium shortage, which in turn restricts bacterial growth.