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144,609 articles from EurekAlert

Chemical compounds carry distinctive absorption "fingerprints," within the mid-infrared spectral region; this offers an opportunity to measure and study chemicals at extremely sensitive levels, but researchers currently lack the tools required. In a breakthrough, NIST researchers developed an on-silicon-chip laser source with outputs that consist of precisely defined and equally spaced optical lines within the mid-infrared spectral region. They report their findings in APL Photonics.

A contradiction, about how a type of neurons generates signals, was now resolved by researchers at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria. Writing in Neuron, Professor Peter Jonas and first author Hua Hu reconcile the observation that fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons send trains of rapid signals, thought to be energy expensive, with the limited energy supply reaching the brain.

Researchers in the UPV/EHU's Signal and Communications Group in collaboration with researchers in the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have developed an algorithm to guide an effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation manoeuvre. Based on chest acceleration, it calculates the depth and frequency at which the chest compressions are being performed. The prestigious PLOS ONE journal reports on the research by publishing a validation of the algorithm with acceleration signals recorded during actual instances of cardiorespiratory arrest.

Graphene, a naturally black material, could provide a new strategy for dyeing dark hair that will make it less prone to staticky flyaways. In an article published March 15 in the journal Chem, researchers have put it to the test. They used sheets of graphene to make a dye that adheres to the surface of hair, forming a coating that is resistant to 30 washes without the need for chemicals that damage the hair cuticle.

Inhibitory interneurons are particularly important for managing brain rhythms. They're also the research focus of a laboratory led by Jorge Palop, PhD, assistant investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. In a study published in Neuron, Palop and his collaborators uncovered the therapeutic benefits of genetically improving these interneurons and transplanting them into the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Micro-sized gels are indispensable for biomedical, cosmetic, and food materials, warranting importance of controlling mechanical properties of a single microgel for application usages. Here it was shown that space sizes for gelation change mechanical properties of gelatin gels. Detailed analysis in the microgel structure revealed that changes in secondary structures of gelatin protein induced the increase of elasticity. These findings shed light on the ability of space-size as a controller of mechanical properties of gels.

Researchers find that primary school children with reduced cognitive skills for planning and self-restraint are more likely to show increased aggression in middle childhood. The study examined the relationship between aggression and executive function -- a measure of cognitive skills that allow a person to achieve goals by controlling their behavior. The results suggest that helping children to increase their executive function could reduce their aggression.

The Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa (ACTA) trial funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) and ANRS (France) has highlighted the benefits of new therapeutic regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a frequent and severe opportunistic disease in patients living with HIV. In light of these findings, reported in the March 15, 2018 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the WHO has changed its guidelines regarding treatment of this fungal infection.

Insulin resistance and elevated blood glucose levels are considered to be the cause of type 2 diabetes. However, scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University Hospital have now provided evidence that things might be completely different. They showed in flies that elevated levels of the metabolite MG (methylglyoxal) cause the typical diabetic disturbances of the metabolism and lead to insulin resistance, obesity and elevated blood sugar levels.

Scientists from the 'Hopp Children's Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg' (KiTZ) and the Neuropathology Department at Heidelberg University Hospital have substantially enhanced the classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) / Physicians will now be able to categorize CNS tumors more precisely into specific risk groups and make therapy decisions on this basis / The method was developed in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) / Publication in Nature.