'Frequency combs' ID chemicals within the mid-infrared spectral region
144,609 articles from EurekAlert
A certain type of neurons is more energy efficient than previously assumed
Chemical compounds carry distinctive absorption "fingerprints," within the mid-infrared spectral region; this offers an opportunity to measure and study chemicals at extremely sensitive levels, but researchers currently lack the tools required. In a breakthrough, NIST researchers developed an on-silicon-chip laser source with outputs that consist of precisely defined and equally spaced optical lines within the mid-infrared spectral region. They report their findings in APL Photonics.
A new algorithm designed to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation more effective
A contradiction, about how a type of neurons generates signals, was now resolved by researchers at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria. Writing in Neuron, Professor Peter Jonas and first author Hua Hu reconcile the observation that fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons send trains of rapid signals, thought to be energy expensive, with the limited energy supply reaching the brain.
A new use for graphene: Making better hair dyes
Researchers in the UPV/EHU's Signal and Communications Group in collaboration with researchers in the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have developed an algorithm to guide an effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation manoeuvre. Based on chest acceleration, it calculates the depth and frequency at which the chest compressions are being performed. The prestigious PLOS ONE journal reports on the research by publishing a validation of the algorithm with acceleration signals recorded during actual instances of cardiorespiratory arrest.
A small protein with many applications
Graphene, a naturally black material, could provide a new strategy for dyeing dark hair that will make it less prone to staticky flyaways. In an article published March 15 in the journal Chem, researchers have put it to the test. They used sheets of graphene to make a dye that adheres to the surface of hair, forming a coating that is resistant to 30 washes without the need for chemicals that damage the hair cuticle.
Altering songbird brain provides insight into human behavior
Researchers from the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and from the Department of Biomedicine at Aarhus University have collaboratively developed and described a llama-antibody that might have significant impact for future diagnostics and treatment of, e.g., kidney diseases.
Artificial sweetener Splenda could intensify symptoms in those with Crohn's disease
A study from UT Southwestern's Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute demonstrates that a bird's song can be altered -- to the syllable -- by activating and deactivating a neuronal pathway responsible for helping the brain determine whether a vocalization is performed correctly.
Attacks on 4G LTE networks could send fake emergency alerts
In a study that has implications for humans with inflammatory diseases, researchers have found that, given over a six-week period, the artificial sweetener sucralose, known by the brand name Splenda, worsens gut inflammation in mice with Crohn's disease, but had no substantive effect on those without the condition.
Biologists unravel another mystery of what makes DNA go 'loopy'
Ten new attacks and nine prior attacks on 4G LTE networks were outlined in a paper.
Blacks have more exposure to air pollutants raising heart disease risk, death
The journal Science published the research by biologists at Emory University, showing that a process known as hemimethylation plays a role in looping DNA in a specific way. The researchers also demonstrated that hemimethylation is maintained deliberately -- not through random mistakes as previously thought -- and is passed down through human cell generations.
Blunt products more popular in states where marijuana is legal
Blacks often have higher exposures to air pollutants than whites, elevating their risk for developing heart disease and death.Air pollution is associated with elevated blood sugar, blood vessel dysfunction, heart disease and death.
Cell therapy could improve brain function for Alzheimer's disease
A new study finds that cigars commonly used to roll blunts -- hollowed out cigars that are filled with marijuana and smoked -- dominate the cigar marketplace in states where recreational marijuana is legal compared to nationally. The findings could help direct tobacco prevention efforts.
Cell-sized mold makes gelatin gels (jelly) 10 times stiffer
Inhibitory interneurons are particularly important for managing brain rhythms. They're also the research focus of a laboratory led by Jorge Palop, PhD, assistant investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. In a study published in Neuron, Palop and his collaborators uncovered the therapeutic benefits of genetically improving these interneurons and transplanting them into the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Childhood aggression linked to deficits in executive function
Micro-sized gels are indispensable for biomedical, cosmetic, and food materials, warranting importance of controlling mechanical properties of a single microgel for application usages. Here it was shown that space sizes for gelation change mechanical properties of gelatin gels. Detailed analysis in the microgel structure revealed that changes in secondary structures of gelatin protein induced the increase of elasticity. These findings shed light on the ability of space-size as a controller of mechanical properties of gels.
Clearing clumps of protein in aging neural stem cells boosts their activity
Researchers find that primary school children with reduced cognitive skills for planning and self-restraint are more likely to show increased aggression in middle childhood. The study examined the relationship between aggression and executive function -- a measure of cognitive skills that allow a person to achieve goals by controlling their behavior. The results suggest that helping children to increase their executive function could reduce their aggression.
Compact fiber optic sensor offers sensitive analysis in narrow spaces
Young, resting neural stem cells in the brains of mice store large clumps of proteins in specialized cellular trash compartments known as lysosomes, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found.
Core elements identified for successful transitions in care for older adults with dementia
Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces.
CRISPR genetic editing takes another big step forward, targeting RNA
While there has been an increased focus on person-centered models of care transition for cognitively intact older adults from hospital to home, little is known about the core elements of successful transitions in care specifically for persons with dementia.
Cryptococcal meningitis: Validation of new therapeutic regimens
Salk scientists create new molecular scissors to correct protein imbalance in cellular model of dementia.
Democratizing single-cell analysis
The Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa (ACTA) trial funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) and ANRS (France) has highlighted the benefits of new therapeutic regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a frequent and severe opportunistic disease in patients living with HIV. In light of these findings, reported in the March 15, 2018 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the WHO has changed its guidelines regarding treatment of this fungal infection.
Diabetes: Are high blood glucose levels an effect rather than the cause of the disease?
Scientists at the Allen Institute and the University of Washington have developed a new low-cost technique for profiling gene expression in hundreds of thousands of cells.
Diamonds from the deep: Study suggests water may exist in Earth's lower mantle
Insulin resistance and elevated blood glucose levels are considered to be the cause of type 2 diabetes. However, scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University Hospital have now provided evidence that things might be completely different. They showed in flies that elevated levels of the metabolite MG (methylglyoxal) cause the typical diabetic disturbances of the metabolism and lead to insulin resistance, obesity and elevated blood sugar levels.
Early puberty linked with increased risk of obesity for women
A new study, which included experiments at Berkeley Lab, suggests that water may be more common than expected at extreme depths approaching 400 miles and possibly beyond -- within Earth's lower mantle. The study explored microscopic pockets of a trapped form of crystallized water molecules in a sampling of diamonds.
Epigenetic analysis: Giving the right name to a tumor
Girls who start puberty earlier are more likely to be overweight as adults, finds new research from Imperial College London.
Evidence of major environmental and technological changes in East Africa, as Homo sapiens evolved
Scientists from the 'Hopp Children's Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg' (KiTZ) and the Neuropathology Department at Heidelberg University Hospital have substantially enhanced the classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) / Physicians will now be able to categorize CNS tumors more precisely into specific risk groups and make therapy decisions on this basis / The method was developed in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) / Publication in Nature.
Three new studies highlight major environmental, ecological and technological changes that occurred in East Africa preceding the Middle Stone Age roughly 300,000 years ago, around the time that anatomically modern humans were evolving.